Top Object-Oriented Design Principles for Writing Clean Code in 2023

Topmost Vital Object-Oriented Design Principles for Writing Clean Code

The Object-Oriented Design Principles are the foundation of OOP programming, yet most Java programmers chase design patterns like the Singleton pattern, Decorator pattern, or Observer pattern rather than mastering Object-Oriented Analysis and Design. It is critical to understand the fundamentals of Object-oriented programming, such as abstraction, encapsulation, polymorphism, and inheritance. However, it is also critical to understand object-oriented design principles. They will assist you in developing a clean and modular design that will be simple to test, debug, and maintain in the future.

DRY (don’t repeat yourself) is our first object-oriented design philosophy. As the name implies, DRY (don’t repeat yourself) means don’t write duplicate code, instead use Abstraction to abstract common stuff in one place. Consider converting a block of code that appears in more than two places into a new method, or if you use a hard-coded value more than once, make it a public final constant. This Object-oriented design paradigm has a maintenance benefit. It is critical not to overuse it; duplication is for functionality rather than code.
There is just one constant in the software industry, and that is “Change.” Encapsulate the code you expect or suspect will be modified in the future. The advantage of this OOP Design principle is that adequately encapsulated code is simple to test and maintain. Encapsulation is used in several Java design patterns, including the Factory design pattern, which encapsulates object generation code and enables flexibility to introduce a new product later with no influence on existing code.
“Classes, methods, or functions should be open for extension (additional functionality) and closed for alteration,” according to this OOP design principle. This is another lovely SOLID design principle, coined by Uncle Bob in his classic Clean Code book, that prohibits someone from modifying previously tried and tested code. The main advantage of this design idea is that existing code is not modified, which means it will not break.
Another SOLID design concept is the Single Responsibility Principle, which is represented by the letter “S” in the SOLID acronym. According to SRP, a class should never change for more than one reason, and it should always handle a single function. The main advantage of this technique is that it lowers connection between individual software components and Code.
Don’t ask for dependencies; they will be provided by the framework. This has been successfully implemented in the Spring framework, which is one of the most popular Java frameworks for developing high-value applications. The advantage of this design philosophy is that any class that is injected by the DI framework is simple to test with a mock object and simple to maintain because object creation logic is centralized in the framework and not scattered throughout the client code. Dependency injection can be implemented in a variety of ways, including utilizing bytecode instrumentation, as some AOP (Aspect Oriented Programming) frameworks, such as AspectJ, do or by employing proxies, as Spring does. It also stands for the letter “D” in the SOLID acronym.
Subtypes must be substitutable for supertypes, according to the Liskov Substitution Principle. I mean methods or functions which use superclass type must be able to interact with the object of subclass without any trouble”. LSP is strongly related to the Principle of Single Responsibility and the Principle of Interface Segregation. If a class has greater functionality, a subclass may not support some of the functionality, which violates the LSP. To adhere to the LSP SOLID design concept, derived classes or subclasses must improve rather than degrade functionality. LSP is the “L” in the SOLID acronym.

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